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dc.contributor.author Axelrod, Daniel I. en
dc.date.accessioned 2010-01-13T00:00:04Z en
dc.date.available 2010-01-13T00:00:04Z en
dc.date.issued 1965 en
dc.identifier.citation Axelrod, Daniel I. "Evolution of the Californian Closed-Cone Pine Forest" In: 1st Symposium on the Biology of the California Islands. National Park Service, 1965. 93-149. en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10139/805 en
dc.description.abstract Fossil closed-cone pines similar to Californian species that now inhabit maritime and interior areas were alreadv established as distinct adaptive groups in Miocene time. Th~ir fossil associates suggest that floristically the closed-cone pine forests are part of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Species ancestral to the pines and their associated endemics evidently represented members of a highly temperate phase of the geoflora that reached the coastal strip in Oligocene time. The pines and their associates probably did not evolve in insular isolation, but in the temperate uplands in the interior. As more extreme climates developed there, the pine forests migrated coastward to survive under mild maritime climate, and also southward where related species persist in the uplands of Mexico under highly temperate climate. en
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher National Park Service en
dc.subject plant evolution en
dc.subject california islands en
dc.subject channel islands en
dc.title Evolution of the Californian Closed-Cone Pine Forest en
dc.type Article en


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